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How THESE terrorists continue to operate un-checked?
By Makhdoom Babar
(Editor-in-Chief)

Additional Reporting By
Jessica Lei, Sandra Johnson, Christina Palmer, Sarah Anderson, David Brown, Saira Ilyas, James Cooper and Uzma Zafar

History is evident that every terrorist organization, in the beginnings had very simple, soft and peaceful agendas and motives but the failure in making an impact through soft policies always brought in violent sentiments. At many occasions, such movements and philosophies were hijacked by certain individuals having ill intentions and personal goals. However, they history and the historians have no single point to prove that terror or violence was always in the blood of a particular nation or followers of a certain religion.
Unfortunately, the tragic 9-11 incident, in which a particular group of some like-minded individuals, claiming to be Muslims, orchestrated a highly lethal and insane plan to make their voice be heard or to register their anguish over the policies of a particular government, the terrorism got a new definition and it brought a particular religion under the spotlight. And most ironically, this religion was Islam; the religion of peace; the religion that rejects hostilities, violence and extremism with a great disliking. And then, the wind started blowing against Islam and Muslims. It was forgotten completely that it was not the Muslim world or Muslims as a whole that were engaged or supportive of terror but these acts were being led by some individuals and executed by some isolated groups. Instead of finding the root causes of terrorism, the entire Western Media and Western government launched a campaign against Muslims and Islam. In this insane invasion and bashing of Islam, Western audience completely forgot that it was not only some Muslims who were unleashing terror but dozens of other non-Muslims terror outfits were also existing and delivering with all the comprehension and authority. They simply forgot that before launching a war against terrorism, it was highly imperative to trace the root causes of terrorism first. They also ignored the fact that if terrorism was to be eliminated for good, it had to be eliminated from everywhere.
Ironically, the US authorities, after a year or so of the 9-11 tragedy, prepared a revised list of terrorist organizations that were operating in different parts of the world. Interestingly, a large number of these terror organizations (more than three dozens in number) are non-Muslims and have nothing to do with the ideology of Islam and philosophy of Jihad. However the Western media and the Western governments made no effort to address this chapter of global terrorism and decided to invade on Islamic groups alone. This act, by now has somehow started doubting the credibility of the global anti-terror war and it has started giving an indication of it being a war against Muslims or Islam and not a war against terrorism.
The Daily Mail has conducted a detailed research on the activities, strength, locations, background, source of funding and motives of a few of these non Muslim terror organizations. This report is a result of the research of a group of professional investigative journalists of The Daily Mail and the report has been prepared with an unbiased and utmost professionalism. The purpose of this report is to open the eyes of the readers and to give the US and other Western governments to address the issue of these terror outfits that are not Muslims, if they really want to maintain the credibility of the War on Terror and if they are sincere in really eliminating the terror from all parts of the world. This report of The Daily Mall also invites the world leaders once again to look for the root causes of terrorism and not to reduce their vision and focus only on certain isolated Muslim groups and individuals.
Below are the details of some of the Non-Muslim terror outfits, operating freely, without any attention of the custodians of the global anti-terror war. Most astonishing part of the whole episode is that many of these fall in clear violations of the relevant US laws and legislations and are also on the terror designated list of the US government but US is not bothered about them and their activities while they have become ticking time bombs for world peace and global security.

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
Description
Established in 1964 as the military Wing of the Colombia Communist party, the FARC is Colombia's oldest, largest, most capable and best equipped Marxist insurgency. The FARC is governed by a secretariat, led by septuagenarian Manuel Marulanda (a.k.a. "Tirofijo") and six others, including senior military commander Jorge Briceno (a.k.a. "Mono Jojoy"). Organized along military lines and includes several urban fronts. In February 2002, the group's slow-moving peace negotiation process with the Pastrana administration was terminated by Bogota following the group's plane hijacking and kidnapping of a Colombian Senator from the aircraft. On 7 August, the FARC launched a large-scale mortar attack on the Presidential Palace where President Alvaro Uribe was being inaugurated. High-level foreign delegations - including from the United States - attending the inauguration were not injured, but stray rounds in the attack killed 21 residents of a poor neighbourhood nearby.
Bombings, murder mortar attacking, kidnapping, extortion, hijacking as well as guerrilla and conventional military action against Colombian political, military, and economic targets. In March 1999, the FARC executed three US Indian rights activists on Venezuelan territory after it kidnapped them in Colombia, Foreign citizens often are targets of FARC kidnapping for ransom. Has well-documented ties to full range of narcotics trafficking activities, including taxation, cultivation and distribution.
Strength
Approximately 9,000 to 12,000 armed combatants and several thousand more supporters, mostly in rural areas.
Location/Area of Operation
Colombia with some activities-extortion, kidnapping, logistics, during trafficking and R&R - in Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador. They have conducted logistics activity with Hizballah in the Tri-Border area of South America. Also reported operating in Mexico.
External Aid.
Cuba provides some medical care and political consultation. A trial is currently underway in Bogota to determine whether three members of the Irish Republican Army arrested in Colombia in 2001 upon exiting the FARC controlled demilitarized zone (despeje) - provided advanced explosives training to the FARC,
Aum Supreme Truth (Aum)
Description.
A cult established in 1987 by Shoko Asahara, the Aum aimed to take over Japan and then the world. Approved as a religious entity in 1989 under Japanese law, the group ran Aleph candidates in a Japanese parliamentary election in 1990.
Over time the cult began to emphasize the imminence of the end of the world and stated that the United States would initiate Armageddon by starting World War III with Japan. The Japanese Government revoked its recognition of the Aum as a religious organization in October 1995, but in 1997, a government panel decided not to invoke the Anti-Subversive Law against the group, which would have outlawed the cult. A 1999 law gave the Japanese Governmetn authorization to continue police surveillance of the group due to concerns that the Aum might launch future terrorist attacks. Under the leadership of Fumihiro Joyu, the Aum changed its name to Aleph in January 2000 and claimed to have rejected the violent and apocalyptic teachings of its founder. (Joyu took formal control of the organization early in 2002 and remains its leader.)
Activities
On 20 March 1995, Aum members simultaneously released the chemical nerve agent sarin on several Tokyo subway trains, killing 12 persons and injuring up to 6,000. The group was responsible for other mysterious chemical accidents in Japan in 1994. Its efforts to conduct attacks using biological agents have been unsuccessful. Japanese police arrested Asahara in May 1995, and he remained on trial facing charges for 13 crimes, including 7 counts of murder at the end of 2001. Legal analysts say it will take several more years to conclude the trial. Since 1997, the cult continued to recruit new members, engage in commercial enterprise and acquire property, although it scaled back these activities significantly in 2001 in response to public outcry. The cult maintains an Internet home page. In July 2001, Russian authorities arrested a group of Russian Aum followers who had planned to set off bombs near the Imperial Palace in Tokyo as part of an operation to free Asahara from jail and then smuggle him to Russia.
Strength
The Aum's current membership is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 persons. At the time of the Tokyo subway attack, the group claimed to have 9,000 members in Japan and up to 40,000 worldwide.
Location/Area of Operation
The Aum's principal membership is located only in Japan, but a residual branch comprising an unknown number of followers has surfaced in Russia.
External Aid
None.
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
Description
Founded in 1959 with the aim of establishing an independent homeland based on Marxist principles in the northern Spanish Provinces of Vizcaya, Guipizcoa, Alava and Navarra, Ta Askatasuna and the southwestern French Departments of Labourd, Basse-Navarra, and Soule. Recent Spanish counterterrorism initiatives are hampering the group's operational capabilities. Spanish police arrested 123 ETA members and accomplices in 2002; French authorities arrested dozens more. In August, a Spanish judge placed a provisional ban on ETA's political wing, Batasuna.
Activities
Primarily involved in bombings and assassinations of Spanish Government officials, security and military forces, politicians and judicial figures; in December 2002, however, ETA reiterated its intention to target Spanish tourist areas. In 2002, ETA killed five persons, including a child, a notable decrease from 2001's death toll of 15, and wounded approximately 90 persons. The group has killed more than 800 persons and injured hundreds of others since it began lethal attacks in the early 1960s. ETA finances its activities through kidnappings, robberies, and extortion.
Strength
Unknown; hundreds of members, plus supporters.
Location/Area of Operation

Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions of northern Span and southwestern France, but also has bombed Spanish and French interests elsewhere. Open source reporting indicates an ETA presence in Mexico.
External Aid
Has received training at various times in the past in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua. Some ETA members allegedly have received sanctuary in Cuba while others reside in Mexico and South America.
Communist Part of Pilippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA)
Description
The military wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), the NPA is a Maoist group formed in March 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government through (CPP/NPA) protracted guerrilla warfare. The chairman of the CPP's Central Committee and the NPA's founder, Jose Maria Sison, directs all CPP and NPA activity from the Netherlands, where he lives in self-imposed exile. Fellow Central Committee member and director of the CPP's National Democratic Front (NDF) Luis Jalandoni also lives in the Netherlands and has become a Dutch citizen. Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an active urban infrastructure to conduct terrorism and uses city-based assassination squads. Derives most of its funding from contributions of supporters in the Philippines, Europe, and elsewhere, and from so-called revolutionary taxes extorted from local businesses.
Activities
The NPA primarily targets Philippine security forces, politicians, judges, government informers, former rebels who wish to leave the NPA, and a alleged criminals. Opposes any US military presence in the Philippines and attacked US military interests before the US base closures in 1992. Press reports in 1999 and in late 2001 indicated that the NPA is again targeting US troops participating in joint military exercises as well as US Embassy personnel. The NPA claimed responsibility for the assassination of congressmen from Quezon in May 2001 and Cagayan in June 2001 and many other killings. In January 2002, the NPA publicly expressed its intent to target US personnel in the Philippines.
Strength
Slowly growing; estimated at more than 10,000.
Location/Area of Operations
Operates in rural Luzon, Visayas, and partsof Mindanao. Has cells in Manila and other metropolitan centers.
External Aid
Unknown.
Kahane Chai (Kach)
Description
Stated goal is to restore the biblical state of Israel. Kach (founded by radical Israeli-American rabbi Meir Kahane) and its offshoot Kahane Chai, which means "Kahane Lives," (founded by Meir Kahane's son Binyamin following his father's assassination in the Unted States) were declared to be terrorist organizations in March 1994 by the Israeli Cabint under the 1948 Terrorism Law. This followed the groups' statements in support of Dr Baruh Goldstein's attack in February 1994 on the al-Ibrahimi Mosque Goldstein was affiliated with kach - and their verbal attacks on the Israeli Government. Palestinian gunmen killed Binyamin Kahane and his wife in a drive-by shooting in December 2000 in the West Bank.
Activities
The group has organized protests against the Israeli Government and has harassed and threatened Palestinians in the West Bank. Kach members have threatened to attack Arabs, Palestinians, and Israeli Government officials. Has vowed revenge for the death of Binyamin Kahane and his wife. Suspected of involvement in a number of low-level attacks since the start of the al-Aqsa intifadah.
Strength
Unknown.
Location/Area of Operation
Israel and West Bank settlements, particularly Oiryat Arab' in Hebron.
External Aid
Receives support from sympathizers in the United States and Europe.
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) Other known front organizations: World Tamil Association (WTA), World Tamil Movement (WTM), the federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils (FACT), the Ellalan Force, and the Sangilian Force.
Description
Founded in 1976, the LTTE is the most powerful Tamil group in Sri Lanka and uses over and illegal methods to raise funds, acquire weapons and publicize its cause of establishing an independent Tamil state. The LTTE began its armed conflict with the Sri Lankan Government in 1983 and has relied on a guerrilla strategy that includes the use of terrorist tactics. The LTTE is currently observing a cease-fire agreement with the Sri Lankan Government and is engaged in peace talks.
Activities
The Tigers have integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy with a terrorist program that targets not only key personnel in the countryside but also senior Sri Lankan political and military leaders in Colombo and other urban centers. The Tigers are most notorious for their cadre of suicide bombers, the Black Tigers. Political assassinations and bombings are commonplace. The LTTE has refrained from targeting foreign diplomatic and commercial establishments.
Strength
Exact strength is unknown, but the LTTE is estimated to have 8,000 to 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka, with a core of trained fighters of approximately 3,000 to 6,000. The LTTE also has a significant overseas support structure for funds raising, weapons procurement and propaganda activities.
Location/Area of Operation
The Tigers control most of the northern and eastern coastal area of Sri Lanka but have conducted operations throughout the Island. Headquartered in northern Sri Lanka, LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran has established an extensive network of checkpoints and informants to keep track of any outsiders who enter the group's area of control.
External Aid
Successive Indian governments and India's external spy agency RAW has been funding LTTE and reports suggest that this funding is still going on. The LTTE's overt organizations support Tamil separatism by lobbying foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also uses its international contacts to procure weapons, communications and any other equipment and supplies it needs. The LTTE exploits large Tamil communities in North America, Europe and Asia to obtain funds and supplies for its fighters in Sri Lanka.
National Liberation Army (ELN)
Description
Marxist insurgent group formed in 1965 by urban intellectuals inspired by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Began a dialogue with Colombian officials in 1999 following a campaign of mass kidnappings - each involving at least one US citizen to demonstrate its strength and continuing viability and force the Pastrana administration to negotiate. Peace talks between Bogota and the ELN, started in 1999, continued sporadically but once again had broken down by year's end.
Activities
Kidnapping, hijacking, bombing and extortion. Minimal conventional military capability. Annually conducts hundreds of kidnappings for ransom, often targeting foreign employees of large corporations, especially in the petroleum industry. Derives some revenue from taxation of the illegal narcotics industry. Frequently assaults energy infrastructure and has inflicted major damage on pipelines and the electric distribution network.
Strength
Approximately 3,000 to 5,00 armed combatants and an unknown number of active supporters.
Location/Area of Operation
Mostly in rural and mountainous areas of north, northeast and southwest Colombia and Venezuela border regions.
External Aid
Cuba provides some medical care and political consultation.
Real IRA (RIRA)
Description
Formed in early 1998 as clandestine armed wing of the 32-Country Sovereignty Movement, a "political pressure group" dedicated to removing British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. RIRA also seeks to disrupt the northern Ireland peace process. The 32-Country Sovereignty Movement opposed Sinn Fein's adoption in September 1997 of the Mitchell principles of democracy and non-violence and opposed the amendment in December 1999 of Articles 2 and 3 of the Irish Constitution, which laid claim to Northern Ireland. Despite internal rifts and calls by some jailed members - including the group's founder Michael "Mickey" McKvitt - for a cease-fire and the group's disbandment, the group pledged additional violence in October and continued to conduct attacks.
Activities
Bombings, assassinations and robberies. Many Real IRA members are former Provisional IRA members who left that organization following the Provisional IRA cease-fire and bring to RIRA a wealth of experience in terrorist tactics and bomb making. Targets have included civilians (most notoriously in the August 1998 Omagh bombing), the British military, and the police in Northern Ireland and Northern Ireland Protestant communities. Since October 1999, RIRA has carried out more than 80 terrorist attacks. RIRA claimed responsibility for an attack in August at a London Army Base that killed a construction worker.
Strength
100 to 200 activists plus possible limited support from IRA hardliners dissatisfied with the IRA cease-fire and other republican sympathizers. Approximately 40 RIRA members are in Irish jails.
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland, United Kingdom and Irish Republic.
External Aid
Suspected of receiving funds from sympathizers in the United States and of attempting to buy weapons from US gun dealers. RIRA also is reported to have purchased sophisticated weapons from the Balkans. In May, three Irish nationals associated with RIRA pleaded guilty to charges of conspiracy to cause an explosion and trying to obtain weapons following their extradition from Slovenia to the United Kingdom.
Revolutionary Nuclei (AN)
Description
Revolutionary Nuclei (RN) emerged from a broad range of antiestablishment and anti-US/NATO/EU leftist groups active in Greece between 1995 and 1998. The group is believed to be the successor to or offshoot of Greece's most prolific terrorist group, Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA), which has not claimed an attack since January 1995. Indeed, RN appeared to fill the void left by ELA, particularly as lesser groups faded from the scene. RN's few communiqués show strong similarities in rhetoric, tone, and theme to ELA proclamations. RN has not claimed an attack since November 2000 nor has it announced its disbandment.
Activities
Since it began operations in January 1995, the group has claimed responsibility for some two-dozen arson attacks and low-level bombings targeting a range of US, Greek and other European targets in Greece. In its most infamous and lethal attack to date, the group claimed responsibility for a bomb it detonated at the International Hotel in April 1999 that resulted in the death of a Greek woman and injured a Greek man. Its modus operandi includes warning calls of impending attacks, attacks targeting property vice individuals; use of rudimentary timing devices, and strikes during the late evening to early morning hours. RN last attacked US interests in Greece in November 2000 with two separate bombings against the Athens offices of Citi-group and the studio of a Greek American sculptor. The group also detonated an explosive device outside the Athens offices of Texaco in December 1999. Greek targets have included judicial and other government office buildings, private vehicles, and the offices of Greek firms involved in NATO-related defense contracts in Greece. Similarly, the group has attacked European interests in Athens, including Barclays Bank in December 1998 an November 2000.
Strength
Group membership is believed to be small, probably drawing from the Greek militant leftist or anarchist milieu.
Location/Area of Operation.
Primary area of operation is in the Athens metropolitan area.
External Aid
Unknown, but believed to be self-sustaining.
Revolutionary Organization 17 November
Description
Radical leftist group established in 1975 and named for the student uprising in Greece in November 1973 that protested the ruling military junta. Anti-Greek establishment, anti-US, anti-Turkey, anti-NATO group that seeks the ouster of US Bases from Greece, the removal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus, and the severing of Greece's ties to NATO and the European Union (EU).
Activities
Initially conducted assassinations of senior US officials and Greek public figures. Added bombings in the 1980s. Since 1990 has expanded its targets to include EU facilities and foreign firms investing in Greece and has added improvised rocket attacks to its methods. Supports itself largely through bank robberies. A failed 17 November bombing attempt in June at the Port of Piraeus in Athens coupled with robust detective work led to the first-ever arrests of this group; trials began in March 2003.
Strength
Unknown, but presumed to be small. Police arrested 19 suspected members of the group in 2002.
Location/Area of Operation
Athens. Greece
External Aid
Unknown.
Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front (DHKP/C)
Description
Originally formed in 1978 as Devrimci Sol, or Dev Sol, a splinter faction of Dev Genc (Revolutionary Youth). Renamed in 1994 after factional infighting; "Party" refers to the group's political activities, while "Front" is a reference to the group's militant operations. The group espouses a Marxist-Leninist ideology and is virulently anti-US, Anti-NATO, and Revolutionary Left, anti-Turkish Establishment. It finances its activities chiefly through armed robberies and Dev Sol extortion.
Activities
Since the late 1980s, the group has targeted primarily current and retired Turkish security and military officials. It began a new campaign against foreign interests in 1990, which included attacks against US military and diplomatic personnel and facilities. In its first significant terrorist act as DHKP/C in 1996, it assassinated a prominent Turkish businessman and two others. DHKP/C added suicide bombings to its repertoire in 2001, with successful attacks against Turkish police n January and September. Security operations in Turkey and elsewhere have weakened the group, however DHKP/C did not conduct any major terrorist attacks in 2002.
Strength
Unknown.
Location/Area of Operation
Turkey, primarily Istanbul. Raises funds in Europe.
External Aid
Unknown.
The Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC)
Description
The Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC), an outgrowth of the GIA, appears to have eclipsed the GIA since approximately 1998, and is currently the most effective armed group inside Algeria. In contrast to the GIA, the GSPC has gained popular support through its pledge to avoid civilian attacks inside Algeria. Its adherents abroad appear to have largely co-opted the external networks of the GIA, active particularly throughout Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
Activities
The GSPC continues to conduct operations aimed at government and military targets, primarily in rural areas, although civilians are sometimes killed. Such attacks include false roadblocks and attacks against convoys transporting military, police or other government personnel. According to press reporting, some GSPC members in Europe maintain contacts with other North African extremists sympathetic to al-Qaeda. In late 2002, Algerian authorities announced they had killed a Yemeni al-Qaeda operative who had been meeting with the GSPC inside Algeria.
Strength
Unknown; probably several hundred fighters with an unknown number of support networks inside Algeria.
Location/Area of Operation
Algeria.
External Aid
Algerian expatriates and GSPC members abroad, many residing in Western, Europe, provide financial and logistic support. In addition, the Algerian Government has accused Iran and Sudan of supporting Algerian extremists in years past.
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path, or SL)
Description
Former university professor Abimael Guzman formed SL in Peru in the late 1960s and his teachings created the foundation of SL's militant Maoist doctrine. In the Western Hemisphere. Approximately 30,000 persons have died since Shining Path took up arms in 1980. The Peruvian Government made dramatic gains against SL during the 1990s, but reports of a recent SL involvement in narco-trafficking indicates that it may have a new source of funding with which to sustain a resurgence. Its stated goal is to destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with a communist peasant revolutionary regime. It also opposes any influence by foreign governments, as well as by other Latin American guerrilla groups, specially the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). In 2002, eight suspected SL members were arrested on suspicion of complicity in the 20 March bombing across the street from the US Embassy that killed 10 persons. They are being held pending charges, which could take up to one year. Lima has been very aggressive in prosecuting terrorist suspects in 2002. According to the Peruvian National Police Intelligence Directorate, 199 suspected terrorists were arrested between January and mid-November. Counterterrorist operations targeted pockets of terrorist activity in the Upper Huallaga River Valley and the Apurimac/Ene River Valley, where SL columns continued to conduct periodic attacks.
Activities
Conducted indiscriminate bombing campaigns and selective assassinations. Detonated explosives at diplomatic missions of several countries in Peru in 1990, including an attempt to car bombing the US Embassy in December. Peruvian authorities continued operations at the SL in 2002 in the countryside, where the SL conducted periodic raids of villages.
Strength
Membership is unknown but estimated to be 400 to 500 armed militants. SL's strength has been vastly diminished by arrests (including its founder Abimal Guzman) and desertions, but appears to be growing again, possibly due to involvement in narcotrafficking.
Location/Area of Operation
Peru, with most activity in rural areas.
External Aid
None.
United Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
Description
The AUC - commonly referred to as the paramilitaries - is an umbrella organization formed in April `997 to consolidate most local and regional paramilitary groups each with the mission to protect economic interests and combat FARC and ELN insurgents locally. During 2002, the AUC leadership dissolved and then subsequently reconstituted most of the organization, claiming to be trying to purge it of the factions most heavily involved in narcotrafficking. The AUC is supported by economic elites, drug traffickers, and local communities lacking effective government security and claims its primary objective is to protect its sponsors from insurgents. It is adequately equipped and armed and reportedly pays its members a monthly salary.
Activities
AUC operations vary from assassinating suspected insurgent supporters to engaging guerrilla combat units. AUC political leader Carlos Castano has claimed that 70 percent of the AUC's operational costs are financed with drug related earnings, the rest from "donations" from its sponsors. Since December 2002, the paramilitary groups under Carlos Castano's influence have adopted a cease-fire and are exploring peace negotiations with Bogota. The AUC generally avoids actions against US personnel or interests.
Strength
Estimated 6,000 to 8,150, including former military and insurgent personnel.
Location/Areas of Operation.
AUC forces are strongest in the northwest. In Antioquia, Cordoba, Sucre, and Bolivar Departments. Since 1999, the group demonstrated a growing presence in other northern and southwestern departments. Clashes between the AUC and the FARC insurgents in Putumao in 2000 demonstrated the range of the AUC to contest insurgents throughout Colombia. The government of Mexico has reported AUC presence in Mexico; along with that of the FARC.
External Aid
None.
Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB)
Description
THE ABB, the breakaway urban hit squad of the Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army, was formed in the mid 1980s. The ABB was added to the Terrorist Exclusion list in December 2001
Activities
Responsible for more than 100 murders and believed to have been involved in the murder in 1989 of US Army Col James Rowe in the Philippines. In March 1997, the group announced it had formed an alliance with another armed group, the Revolutionary Proletarian Army (RPA). In March 2000, the group claimed credit for a rifle grenade attack against the Department of Energy building in Manila and started Shell Oil offices in the central Philippines to protest rising oil prices.
Strength
Approximately 500.
Location/Area of Operation
The largest RPA/ABB groups are on the Philippine islands of Luzon, Negros, and the Visayas.
External Aid
Unknown.
Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei (NTA)
Description
Clandestine leftist extremist group that first appeared in the Friuli region in Italy in 1995. Adopted the class struggle ideology of the Red Brigades of the 1970s-80s and a similar logo - an encircled five-point star - for their declarations. Seeks the formation of an "anti-imperialist fighting front" with other Italian leftist terrorist groups including NIPR and the New Red Brigades. Opposes what it perceives as US and NATO imperialism and condemns Italy's foreign and labor polices. Identified experts in four Italian Government sectors federalism, privatizations, justice reform, and jobs and pensions - as potential targets in a January 2002 leaflet.
Activities
To date, the group has conducted attacks against property rather than persons. In January 2002, police thwarted an attempt by four NTA members to enter the Rivolto Military Air Base. NTA attacked property owned by US Air Force personnel at Aviano Air Base. It claimed responsibility for a bomb attack in September 2000 against the Central European Initiative office in Trieste and a bomb attack in August 2001 against the Venice Tribunal building. During the NATO intervention in Kosovo, NTA members threw gasoline bombs at the Venice and Rome headquarters of the then-ruling party, Democrats of the Left. Strength Approximately 20 members. To date, no NTA members have been arrested and prosecuted.
Location/Area of Operation
Primarily north-eastern Italy.
External Aid
None evident.
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
Description
Founded in 1989 as the successor to the Holy Spirit Movement, the LRA seeks to overthrow the Ugandan Government and replace it with a regime that will implement the group's brand of Christianity.
Activities
Since the earlier 1990's, the LRA has kidnapped and killed local Ugandan civilians in order to discourage foreign investment, precipitate a crisis in Uganda, and replenish their ranks.
Strength
Estimated 1,000.
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Uganda and southern Sudan.
External Aid
While the LRA has been supported by the Government of Sudan in the past, the Sudanese are now cooperating with the Government of Uganda in a campaign to eliminate LRA sanctuaries in Sudan.
Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR)
Description
The FAR was the army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide of 500,000 or more Tutsis and regime opponents in 1994. The Interahamwe was the civilian militia force that carried out much of the killing. The groups merged and recruited additional fighters after they were forced from Rwanda into the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) in 1994. There are now often known as the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR), which is the armed branch of the PALIR or Party for the Liberation of Rwanda.
Activities
The group seeks to topple Rwanda's Tutsi - dominated government, reinstitute Hutu control, and possibly, complete the genocide. In 1996, a message allegedly from the ALIR - threatened to kill the US Ambassador to Rwanda and other US citizens. In 1999, ALIR guerrillas critical of alleged US-UK support for the Rwandan regime kidnapped and killed eight foreign tourists, including two US citizens, in a game part on the Congo-Uganda border. In the current Congolese war, the ALIR is allied with Kinshasa against the Rwandan invaders. The Government of Rwanda recently transferred to US custody three former ALIR insurgents who are suspects in the 1999 Bwindi Park murder case.
Strength
Several thousand ALIR regular forces operate alongside the Congolese army on the front lin4es of the Congo civil war, while a like number of ALIR guerrillas operate in eastern Congo closer to the Rwandan border.
Location/Area of Operation
Mostly Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, but some operate in Burundi.
External Support
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has provided ALIR forces in Congo with training, arms and supplies.
Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF)
Description
The Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF) EMERGED IN November 1998 in the wake of political violence that saw many influential Cambodian leaders flee and the Cambodian People's Party assume power. With an avowed aimed of overthrowing the Government, the US-based group is led by a Cambodian-American, a former member of the opposition Sam Rainsy Party. The CFF's membership includes Cambodian-Americans based in Thailand and the United States and former soldiers from the separatist Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces and various political factions.
Activities
The CFF was not reported to have participated in terrorist activities in 2002. Cambodian courts in February and March 2002 prosecuted 38 CFF members suspected of staging an attack in Cambodian in 2000. The courts convicted 19 members, including one US citizens, of "terrorism" and/or "membership in an armed group" and sentenced them to terms of five years to life imprisonment. The group claimed responsibility for an attack in late November 2000 on several government installations that killed at least eight persons and wounded more than a dozen civilians in April 1999, five CFF members were arrested for plotting to blow up a fuel depot outside Phnom Penh with antitank weapons.
Strength
Exact strength is unknown, but totals probably never have exceeded 100-armed fighters.
Location/Area of Operation
Northeastern Cambodian near the Thai border.
External Aid
US-based leadership collects funds from the Cambodian-American community.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
Description
The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) insurgency grew out of the increasing radicalization and fragmentation of let-wing parties following the emergence of democracy in 1990. The United People's Front - a coalition of left-wing parties - participated in the 1991 elections, but the Maoist wing failed to win the minimum three percent of the vote leading to their exclusion from voter lists in the 1994 elections. In response, they abandoned electoral politics and in 1996 launched the insurgency. The Maoists' ultimate objective is the takeover of the government and the transformation of society, probably including the elimination of the present elite, nationalization of the private sector, and collectivization of agriculture.
Activities
The Maoist insurgency largely engages in a traditional guerrilla war aimed at ultimately overthrowing the Nepalese Government. In line with these efforts the Maoist leadership has allowed some attacks against international targets in an attempt to further isolate the Nepalese Government. In 2002, Maoists claimed responsibility for assassinating two US Embassy guards, citing anti-Maoist spying, and in a press statement threatened foreign embassy - including the US-missions, to deter foreign support for the Nepalese Government. Maoists, targeting US symbols, also bombed Coca-Cola bottling plants in April and January 2002 and November 2001. In May, Maoists destroyed a Pepsi Cola truck and its contents.
Strength
Numbering in the thousands.
Location
Nepal.
External Aid
None.
Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)
Description
Terrorist splinter group formed in 1994 as the clandestine armed wing of Republican Sinn Fein (RSF), which split from Sinn Fein in 1986. "Continuity" refers to the groups belief that it is carrying on the original IRA goal of forcing the British out of Northern Ireland. Cooperates with the larger Real IRA.
Activities
CIRA has been active in Belfast and the border areas of Northern Ireland where it has carried out bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, hijackings, extortions, and robberies. On occasions, it has provided advance warning to police of its attacks. Targets include British military, Northern Ireland security targets, and loyalist paramilitary groups. Unlike the Provisional IRA, CIRA is not observing a cease-fire. CIRA continued its bombing campaign in 2002 with an explosion at a Belfast police training college in April and a bombing in July at the estate of a Policing Board member, other CIRA bombing attempts in the center of Belfast were thwarted by police.
Strength
Fewer than 50 hard-core activists. Eleven CIRA members have been convicted of criminal charges and others are awaiting trial. Police counterterrorist operations have reduced the group's strength, but CIRA has been able to reconstitute its membership through active recruiting efforts.
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland, Irish Republic. Does not have an established presence on the UK maintain.
External Aid
Suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in the United States. May have acquired arms and material from the Balkans in cooperation with the Real IRA.
First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO)
Description
Fromed in 1975 as the armed wing of the illegal Communist Party of Spain during the Franco era. Advocates the overthrow of the Spanish Government and its replacement with a Marxist-Leninist regime. GRAPO is vehemently anti-US, seeks the removal of all US military forces from Spanish territory, and has conducted and attempted several attacks against US targets since 1977. The group issued a communiqué following the 11 September attacks in the United States, expressing its satisfaction that "symbols of Primero de Octubre imperialist power" were decimated and affirming that "the war" has only just begun.
Activities
GRAPO did not mount a successful terrorist attack in 2002. GRAPO has killed more than 90 persons and injured more than 200. The group's operations traditionally have been designed to cause material damage and gain publicity rather than inflict causalities, but the terrorists have conducted lethal bombings and close-range assassinations. In May 2000, the group killed two security guards during a botched armed robbery attempt of an armoured truck carrying an estimated $2 million, and in November 2000, members assassinated a Spanish policeman in a possible reprisal for the arrest that month of several GRAPO leaders in France. The group also has bombed business and official sites, employment agencies, and the Madrid headquarters of the ruling Popular Party.
Strength.
Fewer than two-dozen activists remaining. Police have made periodic largescale arrests of GRAPO members, crippling the organization and forcing it into lengthy rebuilding periods. In 2002, Spanish and French authorities arrested 22 suspected members, including some of the group's reconstituted leadership.
Location/Area of Operation
Spain.
External Aid
None.
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Description
Dissension within the IRA over support for the Northern Ireland peace process resulted in the formation of two more radical splinter groups: Continuity IRA, in 1995 and the Real IRA in 1997. Until its July 1997 cease-fire, the Provisional IRA had sought to remove British forces from Northern Ireland and unify Ireland by force. In July 2002, the IRA reiterated its commitment to the peace process and apologized to the families of what it called "non-combatants" who had been killed or injured by the IRA. The IRA is organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council.
Activities
IRA traditional activities have included bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, punishment beatings, extortion, smuggling and robberies. Before the 1997 cease-fire, bombing campaigns had been conducted on various targets in Northern Ireland and Great Britain and included senior British Government officials, civilians, police, and British military targets. In April 2002, the IRA conducted a second act of arms decommissioning that the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) called "varied" and "substantial". In late October, however, the IRA suspended contact with the IICD. The IRA retains the ability to conduct paramilitary operations. The IRA's extensive criminal activities reportedly provide the organizations with millions of dollars each year.
Strength
Several hundred members, plus several thousand sympathizers - despite the defection of some members to RIRA and CIRA.
Local/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, and Europe.
External Aid
Has in the past-received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable training and arms from Libya and the PLO. Is suspected of receiving funds, arms and other terrorist related material from sympathizers in the United States. Similarities in operations suggest links to ETA and the FARC. In August 2002, three suspected IRA members were arrested in Colombia on charges of assisting the FARC to improve its explosives capabilities.
Japanese Red Army (JRA)
Description
An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking away from Japanese Communist League-Red Army Faction. Fusako Shigenobu led the JRA until her arrest in Japan in November 2000. The JRA's historical goal has been to overthrow the Japanese Government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution. After her arrest, Shigenobu announced she intended to pursue her goals using a legitimate political party rather than revolutionary violence, and the group announced it would disband in April 2001. May control or at least have ties to Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB), also may have links to Antiwar Democratic Front - an overt leftist political organization - inside Japan. Details released following Shigenobu's arrest indicate that the JRA was organizing cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. The group had a history of close relations with Palestinian terrorist groups - based and operating outside Japan since its inception, primarily through Shigenobu. The current status of the connections is unknown.
Activities
During the 1970s, JRA carried out a series of attacks around the world, including the massacre in 1972 at Lod Airport in Israel, two Japanese airliner hijackings, and an attempted takeover of the US Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. In April 1998, JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrest with explosives on the New Jersey Turrpike, apparently planning an attack to coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples, a suspected JRA operation that killed five, including a US service-woman. He was convicted of the charges and is serving a lengthy prison sentence in the United States. Tsutomu Shirosaki, captured in 1996, is also jailed in the United States. In 2000. Lebanon deported to Japan four members it arrested in 1997 but granted a fifth operative, Kozo Okamoto, political asylum. Longtime leader Shigenobu was arrested in November 2000 and faces charges of terrorism and passport fraud.
Strength
About six hard-core members; undetermined number of sympathizers. At its peak, the group claimed to have 30 to 40 members.
Location/Area of Operation
Location unknown, but possibly in Asia and/or Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon.
External Aid
Unknown.
Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)
Description
An extreme loyalist group formed in 1996 as a faction of the loyalist Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) but did not emerge publicly until 1997. Composed largely of UVF hardliners who have sought to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists in Northern Ireland by attacking Catholic politicians, civilians, and Protestant politicians who endorse the Northern Ireland peace process. LVF occasionally uses the Red Hand Defenders as a cover name for its actions but in February called for the group's disbandment. In October 2001, the British Government ruled that the LVF had broken the ceasefire it declared in 1998 after linking the group to the murder of a journalist. According to the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning, the LVF decommissioned a small amount of weapons in December 1998, but it has not repeated this gesture.
Activities
Bombing, kidnappings and close-quarter shooting attacks. Finances its activities with drug money and other criminal activities. LVF bombs often have contained Powergel commercial explosives, typical of many loyalist groups. LVF attacks have been particularly vicious" The group has murdered numerous Catholic civilians with no political or paramilitary affiliations, including an 18-year old Catholic girl in July 1997 because she had a Protestant boyfriend. The terrorists also have conducted successful attacks against Irish targets in Irish border towns. Since 2000, the LVF has been engaged in a violent feud with other loyalists that intensified in 2002 with several high-profile murders and defections.
Strength
300 members, half of whom are active.
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland, Ireland.
External Aid
None.
New Red Brigades/Communist Combatant Party (BR/PCC)
Description
This Marxist-Leninist group is a successor to the Red Brigades, active in the 1970s and 1980s. In addition to ideology, both groups share the same symbol, a five-pointed star inside a circle. The group is opposed to Italy's foreign and labor policies and NATO
Activities
BR/PCC first struck in May 1999 claiming responsibility for the assassination of labor Minister advisor Massimo D'Antona. In March 2002, the group assassinated Professor Marco Biagi, also a labor Minister advisor. One person arrested in conjunction with the Baigi attack was released later on a technicality. In 2001, Italian police arrested a suspected Red Brigade member in connection with a bombing in April at the Institute for International Affairs in Rome. May finance its activities through armed robberies.
Strength
Estimated at fewer than 30 members; probably augments its strength through cooperation with other leftist groups in Italy, such as the Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei.
Location/Area of Operation
Italy.
External Aid
Has obtained weapons from abroad.
Red Hand Defenders (RHD)
Description
Extremist terrorist group formed in 1998 and composed largely of Protestant hardliners from loyalist groups observing a cease-fire. Red Hand Defenders seeks to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists by attacking Catholic civilian interests in Northern Ireland. In January 2002, the group announced all staff at Catholic schools in Belfast and Catholic postal workers were legitimate targets. Despite calls in February by the Ulster Defense Association (UDA), Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF), and Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) to announce its disbandment, RHD continued to make threats and issue claims of responsibility. RHD is a cover name often used by elements of the banned UDA and LVF.
Activities
In recent years, the group has carried out numerous pipe bombings and arson attacks against "soft" civilian targets such as homes, churches and private businesses. In January 2002, the group bombed the home of a prison official in North Belfst. Twice in 2002 the group claimed responsibility for attacks-the murder of a Catholic postman and Catholic teenager - that were later claimed by the UDA-UFF, further blurring distinctions between the groups. In 2001, RHD claimed responsibility for killing five persons.
Strength
Up to 20 members, some of whom have experience in terrorist tactics and bomb making. Police arrested one member in June 2001 for making a hoax bomb threat.
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland.
External Aid
None
Revolutionary Proletarian Initiative Nuclei (NIPR)
Description
Clandestine leftist extremist group that appeared in Rome in 2000. Adopted the logo of the Red Brigades of the 1970s and 1980s - an encircled five-point star - for their declarations. Opposes Italy's foreign and labor policies. Has targeted property interests rather than personnel in its attacks.
Activities
Did not claim responsibility for an attack in 2002. Claimed responsibility for bomb attack in April 2001 on building housing a US-Italian relations association and an international affairs institute in Rome's historic center. Claimed to have carried out May 2000 explosion in Rome at oversight committee facility for implementation of the law on strikes in public services. Claimed responsibility for explosion in February 2002 on Via Palermo adjacent to Interior Ministry in Rome.
Strength
Approximately 12 members.
Location/Area of Operation
Mainly in Rome, Milan, Lazio, and Tuscany.
External Aid
None evident.
Revolutionary United Front (RUF)
Description
The RUF is a loosely organized force that fought a ten-year civil war to seize control of the lucrative diamond-producing regions of the country. The group funds itself largely through the extraction and sale of diamonds obtained in areas of Sierra Leone under its control.
Activities
The RUF was virtually dismantled by the imprisonment of RUF leader Fody Sankoh in 2001; a Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration program begun in mid-2001; and the official end to the civil war in January 2002. The group's poor showing in the May 2002 Presidential elections and the possibility of prosecution if the impending UN-sponsored Sierra Leone Special Court for war crimes have further weakened organizational cohesion. From 1991 to 2000, they used guerrilla, criminal and terror tactics, such as murder, torture, and mutilation, to fight the government, intimidate civilians, and keep UN peacekeeping units in check. In 2000, they held hundreds of Un peacekeepers hostage until their release was negotiated, in part, by the RUF's chief sponsor, Liberian President Charles Taylor. The group also has been accused of attacks in Guinea at the behest of President Taylor.
Strength
Once estimated at several thousand supporters and sympathizers, the group has dwindled to several hundred, although many of the demobilized fighters have not been reintegrated into society and could take up arms against the government again.
Location/Area of Operation
Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea
External Aid
A UN expert's panel report on Sierra Leone said President Charles Taylor of Liberia provided support and leadership to the RUF. The UN also identified Libya, Gambia and Burkina Faso as conduits for weapons and other material for the RUF.
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)
Description
Traditional Marxist-Leninist revolutionary movement formed in 1983 from remnants of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left, a Peruvian insurgent group active in the 1960s. Aims to establish a Marxist regime and to rid Peru of all imperialist elements (primarily US and Japanese influence). Peru's counterterrorist program has diminished the group's ability to carry out terrorist attacks, and the MRTA has suffered from infighting the imprisonment or deaths of senior leaders, and loss of leftist support. In 2002, several MRTA members remained imprisoned in Bolivia.
Activities
Previously conducted bombings, kidnappings ambushes and assassinations, but recent activity has fallen drastically. In December 1996, 14 MRTA members occupied the Japanese Ambassador's residence in Lima and held 72 hostages for more than four months. Peruvian forces stormed the residence in April 1997 rescuing all but one of the remaining hostages and killing all 14-group members, including the remaining leaders. The group has not conducted a significant terrorist operation since and appears more focused on obtaining the release of imprisoned MRTA members.
Strength
Believed to be no more than 100 members, consisting largely of young fighters who lack leadership skills and experience.
Location/Area of Operation
Peru with supporters throughout Latin America and Western Europe. Controls no territory.
External Aid
None.
Ulster Defense Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters (UDA/UFF)
Description
The Ulster Defense Association (UDA); the largest loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland, was formed in 1971 as an umbrella organization for loyalist paramilitary groups such as the Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF). Today, the UFF constitutes almost the entire UDA membership. The UDA/UFF declared a series of case-fires between 1994 and 1998. In September 2001, the UDA/UFF's Inner Council withdrew its support for Northern Ireland's Good Friday Agreement. The following month, after a series of murders, bombings, and street violence, the British Government ruled the UDA/UFF's cease-fire defunct. The dissolution of the organization's political wing, the Ulster Democratic party, soon followed. In January 2002, however, the UDA created the Ulster Political Research Group (UPRG) to serve in a similar capacity.
Activities
The UDA/UFF has evolved into a criminal organization involved in drug trafficking and other moneymaking criminal activities. In January 2002, the UDA/UFF called for an end to sectarian violence; in the preceding months, the UDA had been blamed for more than 300 bombings and shootings against Catholics in Belfast. Nevertheless, the UDA/UFF continued its attacks against Catholics, as well as those seen as a threat to its criminal enterprises. The UDA/UFF admitted responsibility for the murder of a Catholic postman in January, an attack also claimed by the Red Hand Defenders (RHD), a group used as a cover name by some UDA/UFF elements. The UDA also was blamed for a drive-by shooting that wounded three Catholics in September. Later in the year, three deaths were attributed to the groups escalating feud with the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF). Johnny Adair, the only person ever convicted of directing terrorism in Northern Ireland, was a leading UDA member until September when he was expelled from the group because of his growing ties to the LVF. In 2000, a feud between the UDA/UFF and the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) resulted in the deaths of seven men.
Strength
Estimates vary from 2,000 to 5,000 members, with several hundred active in paramilitary operations.
Location/Area of Operation
Northern Ireland.
External Aid
Probably obtains weapons from abroad.
However, The Daily Mail has already written in detail at many occasions about the activities of Hindu extremist and terrorist organizations operating in India and other parts of the world that include Bajrang Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, RSS, Durga Vahini, Shiv Sena, Sangh Pariwar, etc. These Hindu terror outfits clearly fall in violation of US anti-terrorist laws and legislations.

     

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