The ultimate aim of separatist movements is independence. In many instances, these movements attempt to force states to break up by using methods involving armed rebellion against the central authority, intimidation, terror and violence.
If the separatists espouse autonomy or a federal structure, they are more easily able to bring about independence referendums in the regions under the control.
In countries with ‘unitary’ structures, however, there is no chance of a regional independence referenda being held.
That is why the PKK wants a presidential system and a federal structure for Turkey.
Separatists who conclude they cannot achieve their aims through an armed uprising typically begin implementing various plans they think can succeed more gradually. They first seek to obtain increased powers in local administrations and autonomy, an important means of departing from the central authority or to divide the country into federative regions. The reason for all these endeavors is that in countries with federal or autonomous systems, the mechanism of dividing those functions can occur quite easily.
Once an autonomous structure has been achieved, it is easy to resort to methods that will lock up the functioning of the central administration, to adopt policies that will weaken national unity, to make demands that will end in independence and to introduce a referendum on independence. If all these steps are also supported by an external third-party power, that means that separation can indeed become a reality.
The Unitary Structure of the Turkish State Is Thwarting the PKK’s Hopes of Secession
The Turkish Constitution contains no provisions for either self-determination nor a right to secession. It is impossible in such a constitutional framework for Turkey’s administrative systems and borders to be changed unless the country as a whole so wishes. International law forbids any such change unless the central authority, such as Turkey, so desires.
The PKK is also keenly aware that it can demand no such right under these conditions. This separatist terror organization can enjoy no referendum on independence without first achieving a federative structure. It is therefore striving with all its might to bring about a new political reality than can alter the unitary structure of the state.
The Presidential System Prepares the Way for Autonomy and Federation
The PKK terror organization’s first aim in its dream of an “Independent Communist Kurdistan” is to achieve autonomy. Another important dream is for the whole of Turkey to be divided into federative regions. The reason for their insistence on a move to a presidential system is to make these dreams a reality.
The fact that Abdullah Öcalan wants a U.S.-type federally-based presidential system appeared in the press in 2013. Öcalan expresses his desire for a presidential system as follows “A presidential system could be considered … But the presidency must be like that in the U.S., with a Senate like a national assembly. Second is a popular assembly. That can be called a democratic assembly. It could be a House of Representatives like that in the U.S….” (1)
The PKK’s Confederation Trap
Öcalan thinks of the federal system described to date as simply a transitional structure. The system he really wants before an Independent Communist Kurdistan is in fact “Democratic Confederalism.” (7) (8)
The PKK described this confederative entity as follows in Article 2 of the KCK agreement that it heralds as a supposed constitution: “[The] KCK is a democratic, pluralist-confederal system… The will of popular communities will emerge through communes, assemblies and congresses…” (9)
Confederacies consist of a union of various independent states. The dominant feature of confederations is that member states are able to secede and declare independence when they so wish. In his books, Öcalan explicitly sets out his aim of a “Confederate Kurdistan.”
Following a federal system, the PKK dreams of a confederal one. Öcalan thinks that the federal system that can break the country apart will come about with a presidential system, and he regards this as a halfway house to confederation. Confederacy is another name for break-up and separation!
Using flowery language and purple prose, the PKK is seeking division at first, and then a complete break-up of the Republic of Turkey.
Solution and Conclusion
The PKK, responsible for the first major communist uprising in the history of the Turkish Republic, is well-aware that it can get nowhere under a ‘unitary’ structure. It is therefore quite determined to change that system.
If the door is opened to either autonomy, a cantonal system, a federation or a confederation, the process will clearly lead rapidly to a complete break-up. An initiative aimed at moving to a federal system by destroying the country’s ‘unitary’ structure will end in the dissolution of the Turkish Republic. It is therefore essential not to fall into that trap.
The PKK is a mafia-like communist terror organization. This structure’s objective is – and always has been – a Stalinist dictatorship. Bearing in mind the huge support the PKK enjoys from the global deep state on the matter of splitting Turkey apart, it is therefore essential that the country’s ‘unitary’ structure be maintained and that all such base efforts to compromise it be thwarted.
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